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November 24, 2015

Science of speed: the incredible tech behind today’s racing cars

Technology has become a force for change across many different sectors, and motor sport is no different in that sense. Indeed, it was technology, in the guise of the combustion engine, that gave rise to motor sports in the first place, and today’s racing cars continue to draw on technological change.


It is all about performance in motor racing, so key technologies include those that better enable cars to accelerate quickly, retain their grip on the road or track surface, and corner effectively.

In motor racing, and Formula 1 in particular, aerodynamics play a central role in performance optimization. With improved aerodynamics, engineers are hoping to achieve two goals. The first is better down force in order to “push” the vehicle further onto the road surface and boost performance when cornering. The second goal relates to the wings of a Formula 1 car. When air moves over both sides of a wing, there is a difference in pressure created as a result of the different speeds in airflow. The wing will move with the direction of the lower pressure and create lift on the vehicle as it corners.

Energy is another area of motor sport where technology is critical. For example, a kinetic energy recovery system collects the waste energy produced when a vehicle brakes, turns it into electrical energy, and uses that energy for acceleration purposes.

An ongoing challenge in the development of racing cars is to get vehicles to go faster while at the same time ensuring they handle the road surface better. This is where such companies as Transducer Techniques have a vital role to play. With Transducer Techniques’ load cells, incredibly precise technologies are at work to monitor the performance of cars and to ensure that every single piece of the machine is being optimized. In motor racing, the difference between winning a race and coming second can often be measured in sub-seconds, so anything that can help optimize performance is welcome. Load cells are sensors for the purposes of measuring gauge strain. On their own, load cells operate passively, so they must be connected into a second device, such as a computer, to produce any meaningful data for vehicle performance purposes. Using load cell technology, vehicle engineers can determine the weight supported by each tire as well as the movement of the wheels as the vehicle is being driven. Data produced by load cells enables engineers to see how the vehicle responds to each turn and how it performs at different speeds. Engineers can then make adjustments to improve performance.

Load cells are used in the main to support suspension systems, but engineers are finding other purposes for them. Load cells can be deployed in the measurement of force on a gearstick in order to determine impact on wear of the transmission. Load cells can also be used to measure braking performance because the brakes in a racing car respond to pressure applied by drivers as opposed to pedal travel.

In the future, racing car design promises to be even more technological, with techniques that have not even been thought of as yet likely to play a part in ensuring speed and maximum performance.

Drawing On A Grain Of Sand

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. The composition of sand can be very versatile, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz.

The second most common kind of sand is calcium carbonate, an example can be aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. It is, for example, the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean.

The study of individual grains can reveal much historical information as to the origin and kind of transport of the grain. Quartz sand that is recently weathered from granite or gneiss quartz crystals will be angular. It is called grus in geology or sharp sand in the building trade where it is preferred for concrete, and in gardening where it is used as a soil amendment to loosen clay soils. Sand that is transported long distances by water or wind will be rounded, with characteristic abrasion patterns on the grain surface. Desert sand is typically rounded.

People who collect sand as a hobby are known as arenophiles. Organisms that thrive in sandy environments are psammophiles.

Pictures Of Only Kind Of Jellyfish That Glows In The Dark

Jellyfish (also known as jellies or sea jellies or a stage of the life cycle of Medusozoa) are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and refers to any free-swimming jellyfish life stages among animals in the phylum. Jellyfish have multiple morphologies that represent cnidarian classes including the Scyphozoa (over 200 species), Staurozoa (about 50 species), Cubozoa (about 20 species), and Hydrozoa (about 1000–1500 species that make jellyfish and many more that do not).

Jellyfish are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea. Some hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusae, inhabit freshwater; freshwater jellyfish are less than an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, are colorless and do not sting. Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide. Jellyfish have roamed the seas for at least 500 million years, and possibly 700 million years or more, making them the oldest multi-organ animal.

In its broadest sense, the term jellyfish may also generally refer to members of the phylum Ctenophora. Although not closely related to cnidarian jellyfish, ctenophores are also free-swimming planktonic carnivores, are generally transparent or translucent, and exist in shallow to deep portions of all the world’s oceans.

More specific names for the groups of Cnidarian jellyfish are scyphomedusae, stauromedusae, cubomedusae, and hydromedusae. These may relate to an entire order or class.

Electronic Devices Inspired By Food

Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible and is usually applied to information and signal processing. Similarly, the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a working system.
Electronics is distinct from electrical and electro-mechanical science and technology, which deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors and other passive components. This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called “radio technology” because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers and vacuum tubes.
Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics.

Giant Species Of Insects From New Zealand

Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον [éntomon], “cut into sections”) are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae. They are among the most diverse groups of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and represent more than half of all known living organisms. The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing metazoan life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species occur in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, the crustaceans. The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts. The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo complete metamorphosis. Insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages. The higher level relationship of the hexapoda is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm (22–28 in). The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants.

Crazy Inventions For Your Kitchen

An invention is a novel composition, device, or process. An invention may be derived from a pre-existing model or idea, or it could be independently conceived, in which case it may be a radical breakthrough. In addition, there is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social behaviors adopted by people and passed on to others. Inventions often extend the boundaries of human knowledge or experience. An invention that is novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field may be able to obtain the legal protection of a patent. Through the time there has been lots of inventions that make our lives easier. Invention is a creative process. An open and curious mind allows an inventor to see beyond what is known. Seeing a new possibility, connection, or relationship can spark an invention. Inventive thinking frequently involves combining concepts or elements from different realms that would not normally be put together. Sometimes inventors disregard the boundaries between distinctly separate territories or fields. Play can lead to invention. Childhood curiosity, experimentation, and imagination can develop one’s play instinct—an inner need according to Carl Jung. Inventors feel the need to play with things that interest them, and to explore, and this internal drive brings about novel creations. Thomas Edison said, “I never did a day’s work in my life, it was all fun”. Inventing can also be an obsession.

Most Beautiful Species Of Mantis

Mantodea (or mantises) is an order of insects that contains approximately 2,200 species in 15 families worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. Most of the species are in the family Mantidae. Historically, the term mantid was used to refer to any member of the order because for most of the past century, only one family was recognized within the order; technically, however, the term only refers to this one family, meaning the species in the other 14 recently established families are not mantids, by definition (i.e., they are empusids, or hymenopodids, etc.), and the term “mantises” should be used when referring to the entire order.
A colloquial name for the order is “praying mantises”, because of the typical “prayer-like” stance, although the term is often misspelled as “preying mantis” since mantises are predatory. In Europe, the name “praying mantis” refers to Mantis religiosa. The closest relatives of mantises are the orders Isoptera (termites) and Blattodea(cockroaches), and these three groups together are sometimes ranked as an order rather than a superorder. They are sometimes confused withphasmids (stick/leaf insects) and other elongated insects such as grasshoppers and crickets.
The scientific name Mantodea comes from the Greek words μάντις meaning a prophet, and εἶδοςfor form or shape. The name was coined in 1838 by the German entomologist Hermann Burmeister. The common term mantis is also from the Greek word μάντις for prophet.

Amazing And Unique Pictures Of Space

Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in threelinear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics one examines “spaces” with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe although disagreement continues betweenphilosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework.
Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date back to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the Timaeus of Plato, in his reflections on what the Greeks called khora (i.e. “space”), or in the Physics of Aristotle (Book IV, Delta) in the definition of topos (i.e. place), or even in the later “geometrical conception of place” as “space qua extension” in the Discourse on Place (Qawl fi al-Makan) of the 11th century Arab polymath Alhazen. Many of these classical philosophical questions were discussed in the Renaissance and then reformulated in the 17th century, particularly during the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton’s view, space was absolute – in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any matter in the space.

Strange Airplane Black Boxes

Black boxes are actually small brightly colored boxes, found in aircrafts. Though the size of the box might be small, but it tends to play an extremely important role. The most important function of black boxes is to save details of all the conversations that take place between the pilots. It also stores data concerning the flight internal operation systems and major flight parameters.

Black boxes are normally made out of a special type of material, which is capable of resisting severe kind of damage. The bright color helps to detect the box very easily. When there is a plane crash, investigators, normally first try to hunt for the black box. This is mainly for the reason, that the box will assist them in their investigation, by providing them important information, with regards to what actually caused the plane to crash. Over the years the black box has been able to help investigators to solve numerous plane crash mysteries.

Fake Trees Breath Real CO2

So pretty. When Boston asked for designs that could bring the benefits of real trees to the inner city without all the soil and water and waiting, a Parisian group came up with these Treepods.

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