The pug is a toy dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face, and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors, and a compact square body with well-developed muscle. They have been described as multum in parvo (“much in little”), referring to the pug’s personality and small size. Known in ancient China as lo-sze, they may have been responsible for the English Bulldog, the modern Pekingese and King Charles spaniel. They have Chineseorigins, but were popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands and the House of Stuart of England, Ireland and Scotland.
They can suffer from a variety of health issues, including overheating, obesity, pharyngeal reflex and two fatal conditions which are necrotizing meningoencephalitis and hemivertebrae. In addition, care must be taken by their owner to clean their ears, and the folds of skin on their face.
The breed is often summarized as multum in parvo (“much in little”), describing the pug’s remarkable personality despite its small size. While the pugs appearing in eighteenth century prints tended to be long and lean, modern breed preferences are for a square, cob by body, a compact form, a deep chest, and well-developed muscle. Pugs have two distinct shapes for their ears, “rose” and “button”. “Rose” ears are smaller than the standard style “button” and are folded with the front edge against the side of the head. Breeding preference goes to “button” style pugs.